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Disinilah Semua

It consists — in essence — of a clocked IC or other electronic unit that drives an array of LEDs in such a way that individual LEDs or small groups of LEDs turn on and off in a predetermined and repeating sequence, thus producing a visually attractive display in which one or more ripples of light seem to repeatedly run through a chain or around a ring of LEDs. This article looks at a variety of practical circuits based on this particular IC. If desired, various outputs can be coupled back to the IC control terminals to make the device count to or divide by any number from two to nine and then either stop or re-start another counting cycle.

Numbers of B ICs can be cascaded to give either multi-decade division or to make counters with any desired number of decoded outputs. The B is thus an exceptionally versatile device that can easily be used to chase or sequence a basic LED display of virtually any desired length.

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Nine of the 10 decoded outputs are low, with the remaining output high, at any given time. The outputs go high sequentially, in step with the clock signal, with the selected output remaining high for one full clock cycle. The B is a versatile and easy-to-use IC and like most B-series ICs has short-circuit-proof outputs that exhibit slightly surprising characteristics when driving LED-type loads. This output waveform is normally high, but briefly flips low once per cycle and drives LED5 on.

All LEDs are red high-brightness types. You will probably be surprised to note that all of the display LEDs LEDs 1 to 4 operate at almost equal brightness, and that all output loads produce fairly similar current readings on the test meter.

Thus, when using a 9V supply, the load current is typically 19mA when driving a short-circuit, or The graphs of Figures 4 and 5 help explain this circuit action. Typical supply voltage versus output current graph of the Figure 3 circuit when driving different types of loads. Note that large variations in forward current produce relatively small variations in forward voltage. Thus, when the current is increased from 10mA to 30mA, the forward voltage increases by only 0. Figure 5 shows the typical supply voltage versus output current graph that applies to each output of the Figure 3 circuit when driving different types of loads.

Note that each CMOS output stage acts like a loosely-controlled constant-current generator that has its short-circuit output current determined by the supply voltage value, but has its LED-driving current value influenced by the actual Vout value of the stage. In the Figure 3 circuit — when using a 9V supply — Vout is zero when driving a shorted output and, under this condition, 9V is developed across the output stage, Iout is 19mA, and mW is thus dissipated in the output stage.

The circuit action is such that the visual display appears as a moving dot that repeatedly sweeps from the left LED0 to the right LED9 in 10 discrete steps as the B outputs sequentially go high and drive the LEDs on. The LEDs do not, of course, have to be connected in a straight line; they can, for example, be arranged in a circle, in which case, the circle will seem to rotate.

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This circuit can use any DC supply in the 6V to 15V range. This version of the LED chaser can be used with any supply up to 15V. Figure 8 shows a circuit variant in which the LEDs share a single current-limiting resistor R3 and which can be used with reasonable confidence at supply values up to 12V maximum. Figure 9 shows a possible equivalent of this circuit when it is powered from a 15V supply and which illustrates the limitation of the design.

This version of the chaser can be used with supplies up to 12V maximum. Possible equivalent of the Figure 8 circuit when powered from a 15V supply. The output stages of the B can source or sink current with equal ease. Figure 10 shows how the IC can be used in the sink mode to make a moving hole display in which nine of the 10 LEDs are on at any given time, with single LEDs turning off sequentially.

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If the LEDs are wired in the form of a circle, the circle will seem to rotate. Note that, since all LEDs except one are on at the same time, each LED must be provided with a current-limiting resistor, to keep the IC power dissipation within safe limits. Note that large variations in forward current produce relatively small variations in forward voltage. Thus, when the current is increased from 10mA to 30mA, the forward voltage increases by only 0. Figure 5 shows the typical supply voltage versus output current graph that applies to each output of the Figure 3 circuit when driving different types of loads.

Note that each CMOS output stage acts like a loosely-controlled constant-current generator that has its short-circuit output current determined by the supply voltage value, but has its LED-driving current value influenced by the actual Vout value of the stage. In the Figure 3 circuit — when using a 9V supply — Vout is zero when driving a shorted output and, under this condition, 9V is developed across the output stage, Iout is 19mA, and mW is thus dissipated in the output stage.

The circuit action is such that the visual display appears as a moving dot that repeatedly sweeps from the left LED0 to the right LED9 in 10 discrete steps as the B outputs sequentially go high and drive the LEDs on. The LEDs do not, of course, have to be connected in a straight line; they can, for example, be arranged in a circle, in which case, the circle will seem to rotate. This circuit can use any DC supply in the 6V to 15V range.


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This version of the LED chaser can be used with any supply up to 15V. Figure 8 shows a circuit variant in which the LEDs share a single current-limiting resistor R3 and which can be used with reasonable confidence at supply values up to 12V maximum. Figure 9 shows a possible equivalent of this circuit when it is powered from a 15V supply and which illustrates the limitation of the design. This version of the chaser can be used with supplies up to 12V maximum. Possible equivalent of the Figure 8 circuit when powered from a 15V supply.

The output stages of the B can source or sink current with equal ease.

Figure 10 shows how the IC can be used in the sink mode to make a moving hole display in which nine of the 10 LEDs are on at any given time, with single LEDs turning off sequentially. If the LEDs are wired in the form of a circle, the circle will seem to rotate. Note that, since all LEDs except one are on at the same time, each LED must be provided with a current-limiting resistor, to keep the IC power dissipation within safe limits. In practice, moving dot displays are far more popular than moving hole types.

If desired, moving dot displays of the Figure 6 type can be used with fewer than 10 LEDs by simply omitting the unwanted LEDs but, in this case, the dot will seem to move intermittently, or to scan, since the IC takes 10 clock steps to completely sequence and all LEDs will thus be off during the unwanted steps.

Alternatively, the circuit can be made to give an intermittent display with a controlled number of OFF steps by simply taking the appropriate one of the unwanted outputs to the pin 15 RESET terminal.

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In Figure 12 , for example, the LEDs display for four steps and then blank for four steps, after which the sequence repeats, thus giving a moving dot display with a 50 percent blank period. Figure 13 shows a rather unusual and very attractive four-LED five-step sequencer in which all four LEDs are initially on but then turn off one at a time until eventually in the fifth step all four LEDs are off; the sequencing details are given in the table in Figure Note in this circuit that the LEDs are effectively wired in series and that the basic circuit cannot be used to drive more than four LEDs.

Circuit and performance table of a four-LED five-step sequential turn-off display. Figure 14 shows another unusual and attractive LED display. The acceleration action repeats in each switching cycle, and the cycles repeat ad infinitum. Four-LED continuous accelerator display in which the pattern seems to accelerate from left to right. Finally, Figure 15 shows the circuit of a four-bank five-step LED chaser that can be used as the basis of a variety of attractive LED displays.

A greater number of LEDs can be used in each bank if the supply voltage value is suitably increased. Basic method of constructing a five-strand LED light-rope display for use with the Figure 15 circuit. There are five strands, and each one must be color-coded to enable it to be connected to the correct output pin of the B IC.